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Region-dependent bidirectional plasticity in M1 following quadripulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in the inferior parietal cortex

Region-dependent bidirectional plasticity in M1 following quadripulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in the inferior parietal cortex

Authors: 
Fuminari Kaneko, Eriko Shibata, Megumi Okawada, Takashi Nagamine
Year: 
2020
Journal: 
Brain Stimulation
Abstract: 

Background: The ability to manipulate the excitability of the network between the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and primary motor cortex (M1) may have clinical value. 

Objective: To investigate the possibility of inducing long-lasting changes in M1 excitability by applying quadripulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (QPS) to the IPL, and to ascertain stimulus condition- and site-dependent differences in the effects. 

Methods: QPS was applied to M1, the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and angular gyrus (AG) IPL areas, with the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) in the train of pulses set to either 5 ms (QPS-5) or 50 ms (QPS-50). QPS was repeated at 0.2 Hz for 30 min, or not presented (sham condition). Excitability changes in the target site were examined by means of single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). 

Results: QPS-5 and QPS-50 at M1 increased and decreased M1 excitability, respectively. QPS at S1 induced no obvious change in M1 excitability. However, QPS at the SMG induced mainly suppressive effects in M1 for at least 30 min, regardless of the ISI length. Both QPS ISIs at the AG yielded significantly different MEP compared to those at the SMG. Thus, the direction of the plastic effect of QPS differed depending on the site, even under the same stimulation conditions. Conclusions: QPS at the IPL produced long-lasting changes in M1 excitability, which differed depending on the precise stimulation site within the IPL. These results raise the possibility of noninvasive induction of functional plasticity in M1 via input from the IPL.

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