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The critical role of the inferior frontal cortex in establishing a prediction model for generating subsequent mismatch negativity (MMN): A TMS-EEG study

The critical role of the inferior frontal cortex in establishing a prediction model for generating subsequent mismatch negativity (MMN): A TMS-EEG study

Authors: 
Troby Ka-Yan Lui, Yu-Hei Shum, Xue-Zhen Xiao, Yang Wang, Alexandra Tsz-Ching Cheung, Sandra Sau-Man Chan, Sebastiaan Franciscus Wijnandus Neggers, Chun-Yu Tse
Year: 
2021
Journal: 
Brain Stimulation
Abstract: 


Background
The prediction violation account of automatic or pre-attentive change detection assumed that the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) is involved in establishing a prediction model for detecting unexpected changes. Evidence supporting the IFC’s contribution to prediction model is mainly based on the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) to deviants violating predictions that are established based on the frequently presented standard events. However, deviant detection involves processes, such as events comparison, other than prediction model establishment.

Objective
The current study investigated the critical role of the IFC in establishing a prediction model during standards processing for subsequent deviant detection.

Methods
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied at the IFC to disrupt the processing of the initial 2 or 5 standards of a 3-, 6-, or 9-standard train, while the MMN responses to pitch deviant presented after the standard trains were recorded and compared.

Results
An abolishment of MMN was only observed when TMS was delivered to the IFC at the initial 2 standards of the 3-standard train, but not at the initial 5 standards, or when TMS at the vertex or TMS sound recording was applied. The MMNs were also preserved when IFC TMS, vertex TMS, or TMS sound recording was applied at the initial 2 or 5 standards of longer trains.

Conclusion
The IFC plays a critical role in processing the initial standards of a short standard train for subsequent deviant detection. This result is consistent with the prediction violation account that the IFC is important for establishing the prediction model.

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